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Abnormally delayed or infrequent passage of dry hardened feces.
Medical terms related to constipation :
Common causes of constipation: 
o Long term use of laxatives
o Ignoring the urge to open your bowels
o Lack of physical activity
o Low Fiber Diet
o Anal Fissure
o Stress
o Depression
o Hemorrhoids (called also piles)
o Hypothyroidism
o Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
o Parkinson's Disease
o Medications causing constipation:
Anti-depressants, iron and calcium,anti-convulsants, diuretics, antacids, and drugs for Parkinson’s disease
o Spinal Cord Injury
o Hypothyroidism

Other Causes of constipation:
o Colon Cancer
o Neurological diseases
o Cystic Fibrosis
Scleroderma (Dermatosclerosis):
Slowly progressive fibrosis of the skin, internal organs, hand and foot marked by pain upon exposure to cold, and by tightening and thickening of the skin.
Multiple Sclerosis (MS):
A demyelinating disease marked by patches of hardened tissue in the brain or the spinal cord and associated especially with partial or complete paralysis and jerking muscle tremor.
Hirschsprung Disease:
Congenital absence of ganglion cells in the muscular wall of the distal part of the colon resulting in loss of peristaltic function in this part and dilatation of the colon proximal to the aganglionic part; called also congenital megacolon.
Inflammation or infection of a diverticulum of the colon that is marked by abdominal pain or tenderness often accompanied by fever, chills, and cramping.


Call 911 or go to the hospital if constipation is accompanied by: 
o Sudden constipation with abdominal cramps and an inability to pass gas or stool
o Sharp or severe abdominal pain
o Blood in stool

Call your doctor if constipation is accompanied by: 
o Constipation alternating with diarrhea
o Thin, pencil-like stools
o Rectal pain
o Unexplained weight loss

Diagnostic tests that may be performed include: 
o Barium enema
o Blood tests such as a CBC, PT, or PTT
o Proctosigmoidoscopy (an examination of the lower bowel)
o Stool studies
o Upper GI series
o X-rays of the abdomen

Prevention and self-care: 
o Eat lots of fiber.
o Drink plenty of fluids each day (at least 8 glasses of water per day).
o Exercise regularly.
o Go to the bathroom when you have the urge. Don't wait.

Medications for constipation may include: 
o Tegaserod (Zelnorm)
o Over-the-counter Products
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Diagnosis of constipation, Reasons of constipation, Prevention of constipation, Definition of constipation, Treatments for constipation

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