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   Diarrhea
 
Definition:
Abnormally frequent intestinal evacuations with more or less fluid stools.
 
Medical terms related to diarrhea :
Watery Stool, Frequent Bowel Movements, Loose Bowel Movements, Loose Stool
 
Common causes of diarrhea: 
o Fecal Impaction
o Viral infection (Most common cause of diarrhea, especially Rotavirus)
o Traveler's Diarrhea
o E-Coli
o Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
o Food Poisoning
o Diabetes (autonomic neuropathy)
o Lactose Intolerance
o Gastroenteritis (Stomach Flu)
o
Giardiasis:
Infestation with or disease caused by a flagellate protozoan of the genus Giardia (especially G. lamblia) that is often marked by diarrhea;called also lambliasis.
 

Other Causes of diarrhea:
o Bowel Resection
o Carcinoid (a tumor arising especially from the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract)
o Collagenous Colitis
o Celiac Disease
o Fistula
o Ischemic Bowel
o Colon Cancer
o Medications (antibiotics, laxatives containing magnesium, and chemotherapy drugs)
o Parasites of Bowel
o Whipple Disease (intestinal lipodystrophy)
o Inflammatory Bowel Disease
o Human Immunodeficiency Virus
o Zollinger-Ellison syndrome
o Following gastrectomy (partial removal of the stomach)
o High dose radiation therapy
o Microscopic Colitis (Lymphocytic Colitis and Collagenous Colitis)
o
Hyperthyroidism:
Excessive functional activity of the thyroid gland.
o
Crohn's Disease:
Chronic inflammation of the distal portion of the ileum, often spreads to the colon, and is characterized by diarrhea, cramping, loss of appetite and weight with local abscesses and scarring ;called also regional enteritis, regional ileitis.
o
Melanosis Coli:
Dark brownish black pigmentation of the mucous membrane of the colon due to the deposition of pigment in macrophages.
o
Ulcerative Colitis:
Chronic inflammation of the colon marked by diarrhea with discharge of mucus and blood, cramping abdominal pain,inflammation and edema of the mucous membrane with patches of ulceration.
o
Addison Disease:
Adrenal gland insufficiency characterized by weight loss, muscle weakness, fatigue, low blood pressure, and sometimes darkening of the skin in both exposed and nonexposed parts of the body;called also Hypocortisolism.
o Clostridium Difficile Colitis (Antibiotic-Associated Colitis, C. difficile colitis)

 

Call your doctor if diarrhea is accompanied by: 
o Blood or pus in stool or black stool
o Abdominal pain that is not relieved by a bowel movement
o Symptoms of dehydration
o Fever above 101°F
o Foul smelling or oily-looking stools
o Recent travel to a foreign country
o Starting a new medication.
o Diarrhea does not get better in 5 days

 
Diagnostic tests that may be performed include: 
o chem-20 (to check electrolytes)
o urine specific gravity
o BUN and creatinine

 
Prevention and self-care: 
Travel safety:
o Wash your hands often
o Drink only bottled water and do not use ice
o DO not eat uncooked vegetables or fruit without a peel
o DO not eat raw shellfish or undercooked meat
o DO not consume dairy products

 
Medications for diarrhea may include: 
o Over-the-counter Products
o Sulfamethoxazole And Trimethoprim, Bactrim, Septra
o Attapulgite, Rheaban, Kaopectate Advanced Formula
o Diphenoxylate And Atropine, Lomotil
o Loperamide, Imodium, Kaopectate Ii, Imodium A-d, Maalox
   
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Diagnosis of diarrhea, Reasons of diarrhea, Prevention of diarrhea, Definition of diarrhea, Treatments for diarrhea


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