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pain in the head.
Medical terms related to headache :
Common causes of headache: 
o Bacterial Infections
o Caffeine
o Cold Drink or Food (Brain Freeze)
o Compression of Head (e.g. Helmet)
o Sinus Infection
o Toothache
o Temporomandibular Joint Disorder (TMJ)
o Chronic Cough
Tension headache:
Tension headache tends to be on both sides of the head. It often start at the back of the head and spread forward. The pain may feel dull or squeezing, like a tight band or vice. The shoulders, neck, or jaw may feel tight and sore.
Cluster Headache:
An extremely sharp pain in the head that tends to occur several times per day for months and then go away for a similar period.
Migraine headaches:
Severe, recurrent headaches usually accompanied by other symptoms like visual disturbances or nausea. Migraine headache tends to begin on one side of the head, although the pain may spread to both sides. There might be an "aura" (warning symptoms that start before the headache), throbbing, pounding, or pulsating pain.
o Stroke
o Trauma Injury to Head or Neck
o Viral Infection (Inside or Outside of the Head)
o Concussion
o Dialysis
o Fracture (Broken Skull Bone)
o Hyperventilation
o Illicit Drug Withdrawal
o Sexual Activity
o Medications
An eye disease marked by increased pressure within the eyeball resulting in damage to the optic disk and gradual loss of vision, eye pain.
o Hypoglycemia (Abnormal decrease of sugar in the blood)

Other Causes of headache:
o Brain Tumor (Cancer)
o Giant Cell Arteritis (Temporal Arteritis)
o Intracranial Hemorrhage
o Meningitis
o Spinal Tap or Injection
Brain Aneurysm:
An abnormal blood-filled dilatation of a blood vessel inthe brain.
The presence of meningococcus, a bacterium of the genus Neisseria, in the blood.
Paget's Disease of the bone:
A chronic bone disease marked by enlargement and rarefaction and bowing of the long bones and deformation of the flat bones;called also Osteitis Deformans, Osteodystrophia Deformans.
A chronic disease of unknown cause that is characterized by the formation of nodules resembling true tubercles especially in the lymph nodes, lungs, bones, and skin.
Inflammation of a blood or lymph vessel;called also Angiitis.
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus:
A connective tissue disease of unknown cause that occurs chiefly in women characterized by fever, skin rash, arthritis,acute hemolytic anemia,small hemorrhages in the skin and mucous membranes,inflammation of the pericardium, and in serious cases by involvement of the kidneys and central nervous system.
MELAS Syndrome:
A group of rare muscular disorders, called also mitochondrial encephalomyopathies.


Call 911 or go to the hospital if headache is accompanied by: 
o Explosive or violent headache
o Your headache is "your worst ever" headache
o Slurred speech, change in vision
o problems moving arms or legs, loss of balance
o Confusion, or memory loss
o Fever, stiff neck, nausea, and vomiting
o Head injury
o Unilateral redness of the eye

Call your doctor if headache is accompanied by: 
o Headache that wakes you up from sleep
o Headache that lasts more than a few days
o Headaches are worse in the morning

Diagnostic tests that may be performed include: 
o Head CT scan
o Head MRI
o Sinuses x-rays
o Temporal artery biopsy
o Lumbar puncture

Prevention and self-care: 
o Get adequate sleep
o Eat a healthy diet
o Exercise regularly
o Stretch your neck and upper body often
o Learn proper posture
o Quit smoking
o Learn to relax using meditation, deep breathing, yoga, or other techniques

Medications for headache may include: 
o Acetylsalicylic Acid, Aspirin, Ecotrin
o Acetaminophen (Tylenol)
o Propranolol (Inderal) La
o Sumatriptan (Imitrex)
o Calcium Channel Blockers
o Amitriptyline. Elavil, Endep
o Antipyretics, Analgesics
o Naproxen, Naprosyn, Naprelan, Anaprox, Aleve
o Nortriptyline, Pamelor, Aventyl
o Gabapentin (Neurontin)
o Ibuprofen, Advil, Motrin, Medipren, Nuprin
o Valproic Acid, Divalproex
o Zolmitriptan (Zomig)
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