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A painful burning sensation in the esophagus, just below or behind the breastbone that may radiate to the neck or throat.
Medical terms related to heartburn :
Common causes of heartburn: 
o Smoking and Quitting Smoking
Hiatal Hernia:
protrusion of the stomach through the esophageal hiatus of the diaphragm; called also hiatus hernia.
o Medications that can cause heartburn:
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs(e.g. aspirin)
Calcium channel blockers ( e.g. nifedipine )
Progestin for abnormal menstrual bleeding
Anticholinergics (e.g., Robinul,dicyclomine hydrochloride)
Bronchodilators for asthma ( e.g. Ventolin )
Tricyclic antidepressants ( e.g. Amitryptiline)
Sedatives for insomnia or anxiety (Valium ,lorazepam)
Beta blockers (e.g. Propranolol, Tenormin)
Antibiotics ( e.g. tetracycline, Doxycycline)
Steroids (e.g. prednisone)
Nitrates (e.g. isosorbide dinitrate,nitroglycerin )
Narcotics (e.g Demerol)
Vitamin C
Iron supplements

Other Causes of heartburn:
o Scleroderma (Dermatosclerosis):
Slowly progressive fibrosis of the skin, internal organs, hand and foot marked by pain upon exposure to cold, and by tightening and thickening of the skin.


Call 911 or go to the hospital if heartburn is accompanied by: 
o Vomiting bloody or black like coffee grounds
o Black stool (like tar) or maroon
o Burning sensation plus chest squeezing, crushing, or pressure

Call your doctor if heartburn is accompanied by: 
o Unexplained weight loss
o Difficulty swallowing
o Persistent, unexplained cough or wheezing
o Antacids or H2 blockers worsen the heartburn
o Starting a new medication

Diagnostic tests that may be performed include: 
o Upper GI series
o Esophageal motility to measure the pressure of your LES
o Upper endoscopy to look at the inside lining of your esophagus and stomach

Prevention and self-care: 
Try to avoid foods and beverages that can trigger reflux, such as:
o Alcohol
o Caffeine, carbonated beverages
o Chocolate
o Citrus fruits and juices
o Tomatoes and tomato sauces
o Spicy or fatty foods, full-fat dairy products
o Peppermint and spearmint

o Eat smaller meals.
o Avoid eating or lying down within 2-3 hours of bedtime.
o Avoid bending over or exercising just after eating.
o Lose weight if you are overweight.
o Stop smoking.
o Sleep with your head raised about 6 inches.
o Avoid tight-fitting belts or garments around the waist.
o Reduce stress.

Medications for heartburn may include: 
o Ranitidine (Zantac)
o Famotidine (Pepcid)
o Metoclopramide (Reglan)
o Pantoprazole (Protonix)
o Rabeprazole (Aciphex)
o Cimetidine (Tagamet)
o Sucralfate, Carafate
o Proton-pump Inhibitors
o Esomeprazole (Nexium)
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Diagnosis of heartburn, Reasons of heartburn, Prevention of heartburn, Definition of heartburn, Treatments for heartburn

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